Criminal law on hate speech has become a hotly debated topic in the past decade. In the Netherlands, as well as in England and Wales, legislative changes and proposals abound, while cases such as the prosecution of MP Geert Wilders have received considerable attention. How to deal with hate speech in an increasingly pluralist society has become a pressing question. Moreover, with the attacks in New York, London, and Madrid, and the appearance of radical groups and individuals, such as Abu Hamza Al-Masri in England and the Hofstadgroep in the Netherlands, public debate has been dominated by the problems of terrorism and radicalization. As a result, extreme speech, presumed to encourage radicalization and terrorism, is a major issue. This comparative study deals with how ideas behind the law on hate speech and extreme speech in the Netherlands and England/Wales, including the influence of European and international law, have developed since 2001, and how this can be explained by reference to their historical origins. The aim of this research is to discover how Dutch, English/Welsh, and international law have developed over time, but, more importantly, why it has developed in that way. (Series: School of Human Rights Research - Vol. 45)
The purpose of this book is to explore "inner speech" and its connections to second language (L2) learning. Inner speech, or silent self-directed speaking, enables the faculty to "think" words and is the main instrument for verbal thought. Inner speech originates in first language (L1) social discourse and develops in childhood through a process of internalization. In this book it is postulated that, given certain conditions of L2 learning, it is possible to develop L2 inner speech as a result of the interiorization of L2 social speech. Inner speech has been quite extensively investigated from an L1 perspective. The L2 acquisition field, however, has been slow in acknowledging the importance of inner speech in learning another language. Although within the past decade there have been some notable efforts to explore the topic from an L2 point of view, these efforts have remained in the form of isolated articles and short sections in larger volumes. This book reviews the extant literature on L1-L2 inner speech in its attempt to offer a coherent and comprehensive account of the phenomenon. The book draws mainly from Vygotskyan sociocultural theory for insights into the nature of L2 inner speech and the processes that engender it and characterize its development. The pedagogical implications of recognizing the crucial role inner speech plays in L2 learning are also addressed.
Inner Speech - L2 comprises a discussion of the historical and theoretical foundations of the concept of inner speech; a review of studies related to L1 and L2 inner speech and its methodology of research; an interpretive account of the origin, nature, and development of L2 inner speech from a sociocultural theory point of view; and various pedagogical implications and suggestions for further research.
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