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Speech(less) Presentation Basics
Speech(less) Presentation Basics: A Visual Guide was created for the sheer purpose of actually showing a presenter what they are "expected" to look like while making a presentation to an American audience. Presentation expectations in other countries are different than in the United States. The intent of this guide is to bridge that expectation gap and show the presenter, visually, how they can engage their audience while presenting their information.
Speech Spectrum Analysis
The accurate determination of the speech spectrum, particularly for short frames, is commonly pursued in diverse areas including speech processing, recognition, and acoustic phonetics.With this book the author makes the subject of spectrum analysis understandable to a wide audience, including those with a solid background in general signal processing and those without such background.In keeping with these goals, this is not a book that replaces or attempts to cover the material found in a general signal processing textbook.Some essential signal processing concepts are presented in the first chapter, but even there the concepts are presented in a generally understandable fashion as far as is possible.Throughout the book, the focus is on applications to speech analysis; mathematical theory is provided for completeness, but these developments are set off in boxes for the benefit of those readers with sufficient background.Other readers may proceed through the main text, where the key results and applications will be presented in general heuristic terms, and illustrated with software routines and practical "show-and-tell" discussions of the results.At some points, the book refers to and uses the implementations in the Praat speech analysis software package, which has the advantages that it is used by many scientists around the world, and it is free and open source software. At other points, special software routines have been developed and made available to complement the book, and these are provided in the Matlab programming language.If the reader has the basic Matlab package, he/she will be able to immediately implement the programs in that platform---no extra "toolboxes" are required.
The Faults Of Speech
An excerpt from the beginning of the first chapter: ELEMENTARY SOUNDS.
THE processes of speech are mechanical, but they are intimately associated with mentaloperations. Sometimes the mechanical processes are mismanaged, and sometimes the intellectualassociations are-imperfect. In the latter case, expression is tardy or inexact; in the former,utterance is interrupted or vitiated. The two kinds of defect may be combined, or either may existseparately. Stammering, stuttering, etc. are, for the most part, mechanical defects; drawling,hemming, and-uh - uh-hesitation are, in great measure, faults of the intellect. The observationsin this work will have reference to failures in the mechanical execution of speech.The fact that "everybody speaks," and yet not one person in a thousand knows how he speaks;and that children talk the language of their nurses - be it English, French, German, Italian,Indian, Patois, or whatever else -proves that language is normally acquired by imitation. A childimitates with more or less accuracy the general effect of the sounds it hears; but, in doing so,makes many substitutions of easier for more difficult actions of the organs of speech. The lipsand the forepart of the tongue are the first of the articulating organs to be brought into use; and"turn," "tat" and "tate" in most cases satisfy the child's apprehension of the words "come," "cat" and"cake." The action of the back of the tongue is often not acquired for years. Infantile defects arcunwisely encouraged by parents, who-with the requisite knowledge-might enable their childrento pronounce correctly as soon as they begin to prattle at all. There can be no doubt that the mostserious blemishes and impediments arise from parental neglect-or rather ignorance-in thisrespect. When a child says "turn" for "come," and "tin" for "king," the correct articulation will beinduced almost at the first trial by the simple expedient of holding down the forepart of thetongue with the finger. The effort to imitate the general effect will then force the back of thetongue into action; and in a few days at most, the child will, without any assistance, form k, g andng where before it could only utter t, d and n.
The "shut" consonants (p, t, k, b, d,g) are the most easily acquired, and children consequentlypronounce p instead of the more difficult f, and t instead of th. A few minutes devoted to amusing exercise will conquer this difficulty. Thus: tell the child to bite his lower lip, and blow, and he will form a tolerable f at once; or to bite his tongue, and blow, and a passable th will be the result.
The sounds of s and sh are often for a long time confounded; also those of s and th. The sound of s will be obtained from th by drawing back-or, if assistance is needed, by pushing back-the tip of the tongue till it is free from the teeth. The teeth require to be very close for s, but there will be room to insert the edge of a paper-cutter to play the tongue into position. The sound of sh will be obtained from s by drawing-or pushing-back the body of the tongue till it is free from the gum. The sibilation of sh is formed between the middle of the tongue and the palate, modified by a degree of elevation of the point of the tongue also: that of s is formed between the point of the tongue and the upper gum, modified by a degree of convexity of the middle of the tongue: and that of th is formed between the tip of the tongue and the upper teeth, with the edges of the tongue flattened against the side teeth to obstruct the breath at all points but the tip....
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